As the basic structural and functional unit of any organism, living beings are made up of the basic pillar known as the cell.
Cells share common functions based on a common basic policy, and they perform all the activities from metabolism to reproduction, but they are morphologically varied.
Robert Hook discovered the first cell in cork.
Anton von Leeuwenhoek first saw and described a live cell.
The invention of the microscope revealed all the structural details of the cell.
Botanist Matthias Schleiden stated in 1838 that all plants are made up of different types of cells that make up the plant’s tissue.
Schwann, a zoologist, stated in 1839 that cells have a thin outer layer, which we now call the plasma membrane, and that the presence of the cell wall is a unique characteristic of plant cells based on his studies on plants.
According to Schwann’s theory, cells make up the bodies of both plants and animals.
Cell theory was developed as a result of the collaboration of Schleiden and Schwann; according to this theory, all living things are made up of cells, and the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life.
According to the Cell Theory’s extension, Rudolf Virchow made the first claim that all living cells (Omnis cellula e cellula) originate from previously existing cells in 1855.
The cell theory does not apply to viruses.
Modern cell theory, as it is now understood, is:
One or more cells comprise all cellular organisms.
The cell is life’s structural and functional unit.
By division, all cells are created from pre-existing cells.
All cells are essentially chemically identical.
Within-cell energy flow.
Hereditary information is stored within cells and is transmitted from cell to cell.
Overview of cell
Cells are divided into two broad categories:-
- Prokaryotic cells, lack a membrane-bound nucleus.
- Eukaryotic cells are made up of membrane-bound nuclei.
The cytoplasm, a semi-fluid matrix, fills the space of the cell in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The cytoplasm is where cellular activity takes place in both plant and animal cells.
The eukaryotic cells also contain additional membrane-bound components known as organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, liposome, mitochondria, and micro bodies, in addition to the nucleus. Such membrane-bound organelles are absent in prokaryotic cells.
Ribosome are non-membrane bound organelles that may be found in the cytoplasm of all cells (eukaryotic and prokaryotic), as well as in certain organelles such the mitochondria, chloroplasts (in plants), and rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Animal cells also include non-membrane-bound organelles known as centrioles, which play a role in cell division.
Written By: –